The four types of transformations:

  • Translation
  • Enlargement
  • Reflection
  • Rotation

Key facts to remember


  • Describe a translation using a column vector
  • The top number in the column vector tells you how far the translation moves the shape across left or right,  in the x direction
  • The bottom number in the column vector tells you how far the shape moves up or down, in the y direction
  • The shapes are congruent, translation does not change the size or angles of a shape


  • The scale factor tells you how much larger or smaller the enlargement makes the shape
  • The centre of enlargement must be stated
  • The shapes are similar, enlargement changes lengths in proportion to the scale factor, but angles remain the same


For a reflection you need to give 2 pieces of information: state that it is a reflection and give the location of the mirror line (state which axis it is or give the equation of the mirror line)

  • Mirror line – this is the line that the shape is reflected in
  • The shape remains the same size and shape, but is a mirror image of the original
  • If you trace the shape with tracing paper, you will need to turn the paper over to match the images


For a rotation, 3 items need to be specified:

  • The angle that the shape is turned
  • The direction that the shape is turned, clockwise or anti-clockwise
  • The centre of rotation

The shape remains the same size and shape as the original

Transformation revision questions worksheet

When answering questions on transformations, remember to give all the information needed